This course aims to consider what has counted as modern in art since --and before-- the advent of the avant-garde in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. The changing relations between notions of modernity and the aims of artists and their works is reviewed. The significance of movements in art, such as romanticism, realism, impressionism, and post-impressionism, towards the development of `modern art' is assessed. Students may expect to consider works by key artists such as Delacroix, Ingres, Turner, Constable, Courbet, Manet, Monet, Cezanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh. Notions of modernity and modernism in art will be examined as part of a consideration of the aims of modern art, social, political or otherwise.