The existing literature about reform in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century concentrates primarily on the institutional components of reform. However, a great deal of research on the intellectual and knowledge components of reform has appeared since the 1960s. The time has now come to review this literature and bring it into a course constructed for that purpose. Graduate students may take this as a research seminar, subject to additional reading and research requirements, including writing a major research paper based on primary materials. Subject to these conditions, satisfies the 600-coded graduate research seminar requirement for History.